To date, no single European community patent exists that is enforceable throughout the EU’s twenty-seven member states. While the idea of a Community Patent dates back to the 1960's, the European Patent Office (EPO) still can only grant a collection of national patents throughout Europe. The improperly titled European patent is misleading as it only provides national protection in member states that are party to the European Patent Convention (EPC). This protection is by no means uniform amongst member states and even though the EPO grants a "European" patent, the rights that are conferred are by no means European.
As a hub of commercial, cultural, and tourist activity, Europe has traditionally attracted foreign investors. For the American investor seeking a favorable investment return, the Czech Republic has become an appealing option in the heart of Europe. This article examines the legal framework which governs the Czech real estate market.
French Legal Instrument (which is both civil and commercial)
Public procurement involves contracts that are concluded between a public contracting authority and an economic operator in exchange for payment...
The Law of 19 May 1998 on Liability for Defective Products, European Community Directive of 25 July 1985 & The French Civil Code, Articles 1386-1 to 1386-18
Commercial Lease Checklist
Objet : Dépôt de demande de passer l’examen de l’article 100 du décret n° 91-1197 du 27 novembre 1991 organisant la profession d’avocat
French law generally classifies business transactions as commercial acts, which involve an exchange of goods and/or services.
Sources of Private International Law from a French Perspective
French Civil Courts